Polyphony in Iranian Music (IV)

haj-ghorban

Written by Dr. M. Taghi Massoudieh (1927-1998)
Originally published in Honarhaye Ziba (Fine Arts) 3, 1998, 95-104.

Translated by Mahboube Khalvati

Two choirs alternatively perform Veŝ Tavaré Na avaz (Transcription 5). The second group starts the avaz before the first group finishes it; consequently, two different voices coincide (Transcription 5, staves 2 and 5).

In this case, also, each period consists of four melodic figures (Transcription 5, a + b + c + a staff 1).

The final figure (d, staff 1) solely repeats the last sound “la”.

With regard to the last two Avazes (Arman Gol Are and Veŝ Tavaré Na, transcription 4 and 5) it is worth reviewing two theories about the evolution of polyphonic forms.

The first theory belongs to Fritz Bose[i] who believed that polyphonic forms have developed through three old forms in the alternative change of avaz between soloist and choir. These three forms are introduced below:

  1. Choir repeats the whole lyric performed by the soloist
  2. Choir only performs the refrain.
  3. Half of the lyric is performed by the soloist and the other half is performed by the choir alternatively.

The coincidence of different voices due to these three old ways in the alternative change of avaz has led to the development of polyphonic forms. And drone and even ostinato have developed out of these three forms[ii].

The second theory by Marius Schneider argues that the evolution of polyphonic music is a result of heterophonic changes through the performance of a melody by several singers[iii]. This theory is rejected today. With regard to the emergence of polyphonic music, other theories are offered as well[iv].

In regard to drone, the song of Bahraini divers– despite its relation to the music of Iranian southern coasts – is studied below.

Fishing time in Bahrain is limited to two periods of the bigger dive and the cold dive. The former spans over mid-June to mid-October; while, the latter spans before this period. Anglers include navigator, divers, assistants to divers and cormorant[v].

 

Transcription No.6

Transcription No.6



[i] Bose, Fritz; Musikalische Völkerkunde. Freiburg i. Br., Atlantis. 1953 S. 68. 69. 88. 89.

[ii] Ibid.

 

[iii] Schneider, Marius: Geschichte der Mehrstimmigkeit. Tutzing, 1969, S 43, 32, 51, 93, 94.

[iv] Massoudieh, M. Taghi. Principles of Ethnomusicology, ibid. pp 124-129

[v] Olsen, Poul Rovsing; EPL 4177.

Interpretation;

Post a Comment

Required fields are marked *
*
*
Your email is never shared.

Prominent Iranian Musicologist Passes Away in Vienna

Khosrow Djafarzadeh, musicologist and architect, who was also one of the main authors of HarmonyTalk journal passed away on 15 July 2019.

Polyphony in Iranian Music (V)

In addition to the above-mentioned, polyphony can be also formed when a melody is performed by several singers in different ambiances or different sound registers according to their physiologic abilities. An example of this has been performed in rituals of Khanqah of Ghaderi darawish of Mahabad[i].

From Past Days…

shahin-mohajeri-mohajery

Shaahin Mohajeri Wins UnTwelve Composition Competition

UnTwelve Non-profit Organization announced the results of its 2014/2015 composition competition on January 28, 2015. Shaahin Mohajeri, an Iranian Tonbak player, microtonalist, acoustician and composer, was awarded the second prize for his piece “Castle of Babak.”

payam-taghadossi-paiam-taghadosi

Payam Taghadossi: Talented Iranian-Austrian Cellist

Payam Taghadossi (born in 1989) started his musical education at the age of 4 years with Monika Scherbaum in Bregenz (Austria). At the Conservatory Feldkirch he joined the class of Imke Frank and Martin Merker. Later he studied in Zurich (Switzerland) with Thomas Grossenbacher and Christian Proske, where he 2011 graduated as a Bachelor of Arts in Music Performance. Two years later as the student of Rafael Rosenfeld he received his Master of Arts in Music Performance diploma and later graduated as a Master of Arts in spezialized Music Performance in 2016 from the Hochschule für Musik Basel FHNW.

shahin-mohajeri-190

Non-profit “Microtona” Project Released

Microtona is a sixty-eight-page Booklet with personal comments by the contributing microtonal artists. The booklet also includes a DVD which consists of 8 original video tracks and 9 original audio tracks. The project is an international one featuring unpublished pieces by composers from Iran, Japan, U.S., France, Austria, Germany and Belgium.

halate-sahih

Principles of Violin Playing (III)

Violin players should always pay attention to the proper position of the left thumb and other points related to it and to its joining point to the palm.

Hossein hosein Dehlavi

Hossein Dehlavi: the Composer

With Dehlavi it is not all about fame but recognition. Hossein Dehlavi is not a popular musician (like pop singers) whom everybody might know when he is walking on streets of Tehran; however, he is recognized by both amateur and distinguished musicians of the country.

iqiqi

A note on “Illusion or Ingenuity” article

The author of the “Illusion or Ingenuity” article, who is apprehensive of the future of the Music in Iran, enumerates some symptoms of the music weakening in the country for example decreasing in the quality of the music as well as lack of the innovation in creating them, a gradual decline in the music public taste and the drop in the application of layered sound and polyphony in music. He explains that one reason for this gradual weakening might be our unawareness of the fact that we are not so intelligent nation. He believes that we, Iranians, have a comprehensive “Illusion of the high national intelligence “that make us ignorant of the unfavorable realities of our music and consequently no searching for the remedy is taking place. His point of view brings to the mind a patient who thinks he is healthy, therefore delays the treatment and finally is killed by the disease. The author also refers to the national difficulties which gradually will lower the national intelligence score such as the increased rate of the immigration and brain drain, low quality of the nutrition, incompetence of the education system and etc and predicts that the condition of the music of Iran might deteriorate in the future because of the mentioned illusion of its great status.

s2

Principles of Violin Playing (IX)

4.3.1. To practice playing of doubles of notes involving two different fingers, each note is played at separate bows with slow tempo, each note is played perfectly regarding its bass and tenor sounds and then the considered double is played at another bow while considering the resulted sound of the double.

novin-orchestra-rooholah-khaleghi-l

Harmony in the Iranian Music (II)

One of his works was the translation of Harmony, which was carried out with the help of Mozayyan al-Dowleh, and included a pamphlet based on which he used to teach the subject to the students of the school of music; the pamphlet was never published. It was, in fact, a kind of simple harmony for the piano with no quadriads, it rather featured the engagement of both the right hand and the left hand which was being taught at the music school for the first time. Salar-Mo’azez also composed military marches and hymns for schools, which he harmonized to be performed and piano. Likewise, he used to compose for military orchestras.

National-Instruments-Orchestra

A Promising Concert by National Instruments Orchestra

The National Instruments Orchestra of Iran performed its first concert amid much hope and anxiety on July 18, 2015. The Orchestra is founded by Roudaki Cultural and Arts Foundation which is a semi-private foundation in Iran. The Arts Director for the National Instruments Orchestra of Iran is cand the Orchestra Executive Director is Sadjad Pourghand.

z-4

Violin’s inner mold, an essential factor in developing the idea of violin

A part of the secrets of the masterpieces from the golden era lies in the special design of the instruments, as a result of a profound insight to and awareness of the significance of the precise calculation of the various components of the object of arts being created, such as making a violin or a bow.