The Structure of Kurdistan Daf (V)

Researcher:
Mohammad Tarighat

Translator:
Fatemeh Alimohammadi

Behrouz Mohammadi, “Daf and its feasts in Ghaderieh’s Tekyeh” mentions that the outer thickness of arch where studs are located, [is] between one to one and a half centimeters (Mohammadi, 2001: 12). The thickness of arch should be gradually reduced from the installation place of rings to skin (Avazeh of Daf) to create a high volume, clear sound from Daf; also, the connection of arch to skin should not be less than one millimeter, because in this case the skin will be torn due to the sharpness of the wood (Mogharab Samadi, 2009: 79-78). The thickness of wood on the skin side is about two to three millimeters (Tohidi, 2002: 79).

The arch is made in “one-layered” or “one-framed” and “two-layered” or “two-framed” according to taste, patience, or skill.  The frames of two-framed Dafs are connected with pegs and the total thickness of the frames should not exceed one and a half to two centimeters. The construction of one-framed instruments requires more skill and precision and there is less possibility of deformation in such Dafs; they are lighter than two-framed Dafs, so musicians prefer one-framed Dafs (Nasrollahpour, 2000: 73). The method of connecting two sides of the wood is better to be mitered joint rather than mortise and tenon (Darvishi, 2006: 397).

Although, the manufacturers have provided different sizes for the width of Daf frame and in some cases, Dafs with the title of “women’s Daf 7” and “men’s Daf 8” have been proposed among instrument sellers, it is better to compare the width of frame with the size of player’s palm, so that the knuckle of the thumb does not bend. Such a width will also prevent the wrist from bending in the beat of the middle9 sound.

In the past, Daf players of the monastery used heavy Dafs with a frame six to seven centimeters wide, and to avoid fatigue in long-term performances, they had to use straps around their wrists. They believed that the heavier the Daf is, the easier it would be to perform the techniques.  Each Daf weighed about two and a half to three kilograms, which are now known as monastery Dafs.  With the passage of time and the creation of new techniques and faster rhythms than before, the weight of the Dafs has been reduced to about 700 to 950 grams to one kilogram, which has also been approved by the musicians of the monastery.

Sara Jabbari – Master of Sports Physiology – believes: “Light weight and excessive weight of Daf will cause no connection with the instrument and takes a lot of energy from the musician. The best weight for Daf is a weight that applies a slight pressure to the forearm muscles.  In simple terms, the musician feels the weight of the instrument” (Jabbari, 2022).

Thumb index: The location of the thumb to hold the Daf, which has lost its use due to the narrowing of the frame width. Amir Mogharab Samadi believes that “the size of the thumb index should be commensurate with the height and thickness of the arch, so that the thumb index exactly fills the flesh of thumb” (Mogharab Samadi, 2009: 79). In other words it should be close to the junction of the frame with a small distance, otherwise, after the skin is pulled, the arch will lose its circular shape (Khaktinat, 2004: 62). Deepen about one-third or two-fifths of a span to the left of the frame junction for the thumb (Mohammadi, 2000).

Post a Comment

Required fields are marked *
*
*
Your email is never shared.

The Structure of Kurdistan Daf (VII)

Conclusion

“Daf” is one of type of percussion instruments that has a long history and is commonly known as circular instruments (with a rim). In some tribes, Daf was used as the main instrument in festivity and joy ceremonies; in another tribe it was used as the main instrument for war and campaign ceremonies and some others used it for ritual and religious ceremonies.

The Structure of Kurdistan Daf (VI)

Researcher: Mohammad Tarighat Translator: Fatemeh Alimohammadi Hooks and attached rings: The junction of the ring to the arch is about 3 centimeters from the skin.  The ring with its side rings should be as far as the diameter of a ring (about one and a half to one and eight centimeters) to make a proper…
Read More »

From Past Days…

Polyphony in Iranian Music (III)

In heterophonic variant, two performers perform a single melody simultaneously and change it. Performing and changing a single melody simultaneously by two performers leads to the coincidence of different voices.

Polyphony in Iranian Music (V)

In addition to the above-mentioned, polyphony can be also formed when a melody is performed by several singers in different ambiances or different sound registers according to their physiologic abilities. An example of this has been performed in rituals of Khanqah of Ghaderi darawish of Mahabad[i].

Parviz Meshkatian’s Heart Beat for People (II)

As such, the young Meshkatian reached the position of a great maestro in the Iranian music. Up until 1997, Meshkatian remained prolific and composed many pieces which were characterized by progressiveness while drawing on the music of the past Iranian musicians. In some of Meshkatian’s works, one can trace the influence of maestros such as Faramarz Payvar; however, this influence is so balanced that one can neither say that Meshkatian is a progressive and deconstructionist composer nor does he use cliché forms in his compositions.

Kayvan Mirhadi and O.R.P Qaurtet

Establishing O.R.P. Quartet is Kayvan Mirhadi’s latest activity as a guitarist, composer and conductor of Kamerata Orchestra. Besides working with this Quartet, Mirhadi is busy these days recording and mixing some of his own works as well as some pieces by 20th century composers. O.R.P Quartet performed a concert in Rasht, Gilan Province in late May 2016 and offered a master class.

Gholam Reza Khan Minbashian: a pioneer in Iranian music (II)

Gholamreza Khan Minbashian taught courses such as organology, orchestration of military music and harmony based on the books which were translated from French into Persian with the help of Aliakbar Mozayyan-o-Dolleh (1846-1932).

Prominent Iranian Musicologist Passes Away in Vienna

Khosrow Djafarzadeh, musicologist and architect, who was also one of the main authors of HarmonyTalk journal passed away on 15 July 2019.

Hossein Dehlavi: the Composer

With Dehlavi it is not all about fame but recognition. Hossein Dehlavi is not a popular musician (like pop singers) whom everybody might know when he is walking on streets of Tehran; however, he is recognized by both amateur and distinguished musicians of the country.

The Structure of Kurdistan Daf (IV)

Researcher: Mohammad Tarighat Translator: Fatemeh Alimohammadi Daf Structure The Structure of Daf in different cities of Iran has a great variety in terms of dimensions, components and even appearance; some of which are as follows: – Square Daf, on which the skin was stretched either on one or both sides, with strings installed inside it…
Read More »

“Guitar Memories” Released

The album “Guitar Memories” consists of the performance of baroque to recent era masterpieces, by Mehrdad Mahdavi, and is published by Tanin-e Honar Publication.

In this album there are pieces composed and arranged by artists such as: Sylvius Leopold Weiss, Johann Anton Logy, Fernando Sor, Yuquijiro Yocoh, Leo Brouwer.

HarmonyTalk Celebrates 11th Anniversary

April 6 marks the anniversary of launching HarmonyTalk.com. Back in 2004, HarmonyTalk was rather a blog dedicated to music. Gradually, however, it found its way to becoming a more sophisticated journal with an intensive but not exclusive concentration on classical music.