Developments in Iranian Music Since Qajar Era (III)

National Instruments Orchestra

Developments in Composing
Along with developments in the Iranian instruments, composition of the Iranian pieces developed as well. As a matter of fact, the developments of the two, mutually affected each other. In other words, instrumental developments led to developments in composition and vice versa.

A type of Iranian music which is categorised as classical music by contemporary ethnomusicologists was performed as unison music. It was only during the accompaniment of a plucked string instrument with a bowed string instrument when some kind of heterophony could be experienced. However, with the advent of notation and, immediately after that, with the emergence/recognition of the individuality of the composer, another type of composing also emerged, i.e. polyphonic music.

Iranian composers adopted three different approaches to polyphony:
1- Employing Western polyphonic techniques while meticulously copying all their details,
2- Employing some of the Western polyphonic techniques which were more compatible with the Iranian music, and finally,
3- Adopting a new approach to polyphony based on the Iranian music characteristics.

The first category consisted of musicians who were Western classical music graduates. The majority of them were not familiar with techniques other than those of the polyphonic classical music. Moreover, they did not have a rich knowledge of the Iranian music which would allow them to make new polyphonic suggestions for the Iranian music intervals.

Composers who fall under the second category did not believe in alienation of Iranian music and Western music from each other. Therefore, by modifying, moderating and selecting polyphonic techniques of the Western music for the Iranian music they adopted an approach which was more faithful to the Iranian music compared to the first approach.

Composers who were associated with the third approach abandoned the use of the polyphonic techniques of the Western classical music as they considered them absolutely inappropriate for the Iranian music. Consequently, they drew on different approaches to create a context which was specific to the Iranian music.

It is worth mentioning that the second approach is more prevalent among the Iranian composers nowadays.

translated by Mahboube Khalvati

Post a Comment

Required fields are marked *
*
*
Your email is never shared.

Prominent Iranian Musicologist Passes Away in Vienna

Khosrow Djafarzadeh, musicologist and architect, who was also one of the main authors of HarmonyTalk journal passed away on 15 July 2019.

Polyphony in Iranian Music (V)

In addition to the above-mentioned, polyphony can be also formed when a melody is performed by several singers in different ambiances or different sound registers according to their physiologic abilities. An example of this has been performed in rituals of Khanqah of Ghaderi darawish of Mahabad[i].

From Past Days…

s2

Principles of Violin Playing (VII)

4.3.1.3 Regarding the great linear distance and the unusual distance between the first and forth fingers, the first finger while playing the doubles of ninth and tenth interval, can be twisted in the knuckle area and the point mentioned in 3.1.2.5 paragraph in relation to the way first finger is placed indicating that the first joint of this finger in back of hand must be in line with the direction of forearm and left hand is not true here.

harmonytalk-auteur

HarmonyTalk Celebrates 11th Anniversary

April 6 marks the anniversary of launching HarmonyTalk.com. Back in 2004, HarmonyTalk was rather a blog dedicated to music. Gradually, however, it found its way to becoming a more sophisticated journal with an intensive but not exclusive concentration on classical music.

afsdghm

Illusion or Ingenuity?

Mohsen Renani in the preface of his book entitled “The Political Economy of nuclear conflict; an introduction to traversing the civilizations” writes:

mohsen-ghanebasiri

A year without Mohsen Ghanebasiri

The year 1396 (21 March 2017-20 March 2018) was the most sorrowful year for HarmonyTalk journal. One month after holding HarmonyTalk’s 13th establishment anniversary in Mohsen Ghanebasiri’s house in Tehran in April 2017, he untimely passed away. Mohsen Ghanebasiri was the prominent HarmonyTalk author.

z-4

Violin’s inner mold, an essential factor in developing the idea of violin

A part of the secrets of the masterpieces from the golden era lies in the special design of the instruments, as a result of a profound insight to and awareness of the significance of the precise calculation of the various components of the object of arts being created, such as making a violin or a bow.

shahin-mohajeri-mohajery

Shaahin Mohajeri Wins UnTwelve Composition Competition

UnTwelve Non-profit Organization announced the results of its 2014/2015 composition competition on January 28, 2015. Shaahin Mohajeri, an Iranian Tonbak player, microtonalist, acoustician and composer, was awarded the second prize for his piece “Castle of Babak.”

photo_2017-01-01_11-54-07

Henry Cowell: “Persian Set”

Persian Set: Four Movements for chamber orchestra: Moderato; Allegretto; Lento; Rondo

Henry Cowell, one of the most innovative American composers of the 20th century, was born in 1897. Cowell and his wife visited Iran in 1956 and stayed there the whole winter, upon the invitation by the Iranian Royal Family, when he composed his album “Persian Set” in four movements for chamber orchestra. His composition is expressive of the characteristic quality of the Persian or the Iranian music.

33bg8c1

Principles of Violin Playing (VIII)

1.5.1.3.sometimes, a player, due to different reasons, may decisively want to play continuously two notes with a half-step by means of the same finger, in such a case, it’s necessary to open the interior curve of the finger like a spring. Naturally coming back, the curve of finger should be closed and the finger should become curved shape again (see paragraph 3.1.2.1).

tehran-flute-choir

Tehran Flute Choir Established

Tehran Flute Choir was established in 1394 (late 2015) by Firouzeh Navai. Tehran Flute Choir, Iran’s first largest flute choir, recruited its members mostly from young talented flutists of Iranian Flute Association. Featuring piccolo, flute, alto flute and bass flute, Tehran Flute Choir, directed by Firouzeh Navai, premiered under the batons of Saeed Taghadosi on January 7-8, 2016 at Roudaki Hall in Tehran.

jash-saba-444

The First Saba Student Music Festival Concluded in Tehran

Preparations for Saba Student Music Festival started in the summer of 2016; the Student Music Festival will be held annually by the students of music at Arts University. The first part of the closing ceremony of the Festival was dedicated to the celebration of the life, work and strives by Maestro Hossein Dehlavi to upgrade the level of music as an academic discipline. The name of the award-winning students and ensembles were announced at the second part of the ceremony.